Different parts of Pc or Computer
What is a Computer?
Computer: A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computing programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs.
computer full form
C = Commonly
O = Operated
M = Machine
P = Particularly
U = Used
T = Technical
E = Educational
R = Research
What is CPU and What is the full form of CPU?
The CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. The CPU socket is a particular section where the CPU is mounted inside the motherboard to perform other outputs and inputs of the system. The CPU’s known as the brain of a computer. It performs all the basic logical and arithmetic operations activities and transmits the commands and programs of the computer. The term CPU is normally used to refer to a processor that consists of the arithmetical logical unit and control unit.
Read More: Differences Between SSD And HDD
CPU = ALU + CU
ALU – Arithmetical Logical Unit
CU – control unit
Various Types Of CPU
There are three main types of CPU
- Transistor type CPU
- Large Scale Integration type CPU
- Small Scale Integration type CPU
Different parts of CPU
The CPU is broadly divided into three main parts.
Arithmetical Logical Unit (ALU)
It is a significant part of the CPU. It is responsible for the supervision of all numerical and logical functions, such as subtraction, addition, division, multiplication, etc.
Control Unit (CU)
CU is the main component of the CPU. It directs a task to the whole system, and it regulates all the computer activities that occur.
Memory or Register
A register is a particular type of device for memory. The memory saves the data which the processor has to process or already processed.
DDR Full Form
DDR stands for Double Data Rate. It is a technique in computing with which a computer bus transfers data at double the rate sending data at rising and falling edges of a clock cycle. This method allows for sending 2 signals per clock cycle
The simplest way to design an electronic circuit is to make it perform one transfer per clock cycle (SDR technique uses this). This requires the clock signal to change twice per cycle.
When operating at high bandwidth, signal integrity limitations constrain the clock frequency. By using both edges of the clock, the data signals operate with the same limiting frequency but doubling the total transmitted data. It was an improved version of SDRAM which uses an SDR technique for data transmission.
This technique was an improvement over its predecessor SDR (single data rate) and has been succeeded by an improved version named QDR (quad data rate). A double data rate clock cycle looks as follows:-
Characteristics of DDR
- Transmits data twice per cycle (wave/clock), firstly at the rising edge and then at falling edges of a clock cycle
- Each clock cycle has a unidirectional flow of data
- DDR SDRAM technology consumes less power than older SDRAM modules, which expended 3.3 volts compared to DDR SDRAM’s 2.6 volts.
- DDR operates at the same frequency as the clock cycle.
Advantages of DDR
- Higher levels of transmission speeds are obtained
- Reduces the number of cycles required to perform a task
- Reduces the component cost required
- Allows for smaller form factor computing devices
Disadvantages of DDR
- Slower compared to QDR (quad data rate) technique
- Devices accommodating DDR technique produces more heat
Applications of DDR
This technique has widespread acceptance in applications requiring high data transfer speeds such as:
- The technique is used extensively in building Volatile components for a computer (RAM) and is commonly referred to as DDR SDRAM (double data rate synchronized dynamic random access memory). The technique found a lot of success in the field, due to which the same technique has been implemented in later iterations of the technology under the name DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM, DDR4 SDRAM.
- The technique is used to incorporate volatile storage capabilities in Graphics Processors (graphic cards) and is known as GDDR (graphics double data rate). Which is a technology tailored to work with video cards
- Used in analog-to-digital converters
- Used in the bus of certain microprocessors (AMD’s Athlon64 series), allowing transmission of data at a faster rate to-from the CPU.
Difference between RAM and ROM
RAM Full form = Random Access Memory
ROM Full form = Read-Only Memory
Prerequisite – Types of computer memory (RAM and ROM)
Random Access Memory (RAM) stores the programs and data being used by the CPU in real-time. The data on the RAM memory can be read, written, and erased any number of times. RAM is a hardware component where the data being currently used is stored. It is a volatile memory. Types of RAM:
- Static RAM, or (SRAM) which stores a bit of data using the state of a six transistor memory cell.
- Dynamic RAM, or (DRAM) which stores a bit of data using a pair of transistor and capacitor which constitute a DRAM memory cell.
Read-Only Memory (ROM) is a type of memory where the data has been prerecorded. Data stored in ROM is retained even after the computer is turned off ie, non-volatile. Types of ROM:
- Programmable ROM, where the data is written after the memory chip has been created. It is non-volatile.
- Erasable Programmable ROM, where the data on this non-volatile memory chip can be erased by exposing it to high-intensity UV light.
- Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM, where the data on this non-volatile memory chip can be electrically erased using field electron emission.
- Mask ROM, is a type of ROM in which the contents are programmed during the manufacturing of the memory chip.
SATA Full Form
A Detailed Overview And Full Form Of SATA
The full form of SATA is Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. It is a type of interface that connects the mass storage device to the motherboard present inside the computer. This can also be used to transform and control the data from the hard disk.
Over the years, it has been established that the Serial Advanced Technology Attachment i.e. the SATA is very beneficial for various reasons. Thus the users decide to increase the use of SATA and reduce the use of other similar products.
History of SATA
The SATA acronym stands for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. The first time it came into being was in the year 2002. Due to the advantageous nature of the product, the interface was in high demand ever since the time it was invented. Over the years, several changes have come up in the product; however, the extent of demand has remained the same.
Difference Between SATA and PATA
The full form of SATA is Serial Advanced Technology Attachment and features various advantages over PATA. Some of these are:
- SATA has a higher speed than PATA.
- SATA is more compatible in comparison to PATA.
- SATA uses much less power.
- It consumes a lesser amount of heat.
- Another advantage of using the Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (learn the SATA abbreviation) is that it can be stretched to a longer distance.
- While SATA can be stretched to a length of about 1 meter, PATA can be extended to a length of about 40 cm.
- Another point of difference between the two is that SATA has two connectors, Pwhile ATA only has one large connector.
Advantages of Using SATA
There are several advantages of Serial Advanced Technology Attachment and understanding the full form in English will help you to learn more about it.
- It has a very good transfer rate.
- The cable is quite easy to manage.
- SATA cables are smaller, so there is more room for airflow inside the computer case.
- There are about six SATA connections inside the motherboard so that multiple hard drives can be hooked up at the same time.
Uses of SATA
The benefits have, in turn, given rise to several uses of the product. Some of the most common uses of SATA are:
- Can connect ATA and ATAPI devices.
- The interface can also be used to connect a hard drive to another hard drive.
- It can also be used to connect a Hard Drive to the Motherboard.
PATA full form
PATA stands for Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment.
A motherboard has many components in it. Each component has its own functionality. There are cables used for different purposes in a motherboard and PATA is one of them.
Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment(PATA) also called Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) is a bus interface used for connecting secondary storage devices like hard disks, optical drives to the computer system. The functionality of PATA is to transfer the data.
PATA was introduced by a company named Western Digital and Compaq in the year 1986. When introduced, it was named as Advanced Technology Attachment or ATA in short. The cable was named ATA as it’s main function involved transferring of data. Later on, when SATA was introduced in 2003, the bus interface was renamed as PATA. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment(SATA) was introduced as PATA was subsequently losing its place in the market. The reason is the speed of data transfer was slower and the price was higher. With SATA being introduced, the demand for Parallel ATA slowly declined.
Types of PATA Cables
PATA cables are of two kinds. They look quite similar but the functionalities are different. They are also called as IDE.
- PATA 40 conductor cable:
It was first introduced to connect devices which have a transfer speed of 33 Megabytes per second(Mbps). A user can connect a maximum of two devices to the cable in the motherboard. It was later replaced by PATA 80 conductor cable.
- PATA 80 conductor cable:
It has the ability to connect IDE devices that have a transfer speed of 133 Megabytes per second(Mbps). The cable was much wider than the PATA 40 conductor cable.
- PATA is a 40 pin connector with 20 pins on the upper side and 20 on the lower facing parallel to each other.
- One PATA cable can connect up to 2 devices.
- It doesn’t have the feature of hot-swapping.
Hot swapping is a condition in which the devices must be replaced immediately without switching off the entire system when heated up.
- In the case of PATA, when the problem occurred, the entire system has to be switched off.
- 16 bits(2 bytes) of data are transferred using PATA.
- The older versions of Operating systems support the PATA.
- The older versions of operating systems used to work comparatively slower than the present-day operating systems. PATA was a better choice to use for those OS.
- The speed of data transfer was good enough in those days.
- The demand for PATA was more as it was the first cable connector introduced.
- The cost was higher making it unaffordable to everyone.
- The cable consumes more power.
- It doesn’t have hot swapping.
- The demand for cable was slowly falling.
- It was succeeded by SATA in 2003.
What is the full form of SSD
SSD: Solid State Drive
SSD stands for Solid State Drive. It is a mass storage device similar to a hard disk drive (HDD). It allows reading and writing data and maintains stored data in a permanent state even without power. It can be connected to a computer through standard IDE or SATA connections. SSDs are also known as flash drives or solid-state disks.
SSD is a non-volatile storage media as it is designed with floating gate transistors (FGRs) to hold the electrical charge. Thus it retains the data even when it is not connected to a power source. Each FGR in an SSD contains a single bit of data denoted as 1 for a charged cell and denoted as 0 for a cell without an electric charge.
Components of SSD:
An SSD mainly comprises a Flash Memory Chips and Flash Controller.
- Flash Memory Chip: The data is stored on a solid-state flash memory that contains storage memory. SSD has interconnected flash memory chips, which are fabricated out of silicon. So, SSDs are manufactured by stacking chips in a grid to achieve different densities.
- Flash Controller: It is an in-built microprocessor that takes care of functions like error correction, data retrieval, and encryption. It also controls access to input/output (I/O) and read/write (R/W) operations between the SSD and host computer.
Note: It has no moving parts like an HDD, which has a spinning disk with a read/write head on a mechanical arm called an actuator.
It is designed to deliver high read and write performance for both sequential and random data requests.
The benefits of using an SSD drive:
- Durability: It is more durable than hard drive as it does not have moving parts that may go wrong and produce heat.
- Faster: It offers faster boot times, faster application loading times, and improved system responsiveness.
- Easy to Carry: It is lighter in weight than a hard disk, which makes it better suited for the wear and tear of constant travel.
- More Efficient: It needs less power to work as it does not have moving parts.
- Easy to Install: Anyone can install an SSD with little more than a screwdriver – no previous experience required.
What does HDD mean? and full form
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) is a device for storing and retrieving digital information, primarily computer data.
What is the full form of ATA/PATA?
Full form of ATA/PATA: Here, we are going to learn about the ATA/PATA, its full history, functioning, advantages, and disadvantages.
ATA/PATA: Advanced Technology Attachment/Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment
ATA is an abbreviation of Advanced Technology Attachment. ATA has existed for a long time and initially, it named PATA. When newer Serial ATA (SATA) came, ATA is collaterally renamed to ATA (PATA). ATA is known to be a standard physical interface that used to establish a link with storage devices like hard-drive, optical drive, solid-state drive, and CD-ROM to the motherboard. ATA works from inside because of support of up to 18 inches cable only by ATA standards. To establish a link with portable storage devices, it is created without using an external controller.
ATA is the extremely common and low-budget interface that makes available for using a reliable speed. It is fundamentally formed of thin wires and cable bus. The ATA attainments are reverse compatible. It means with ATA interfaces that were there for a long time, every new version of ATA or recently developed ATA drives can be utilized.
In 1986, the first version of ATA was developed by the organization named Western Digital. ATA is also called Integrated Device Electronics (IDE).
Initially, it was called ATA but in 2003, after the origination of SATA (Serial ATA), it turned into PATA. PATA and SATA both the devices are called IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) devices.
- The pins adapter links on either side of the cable are 40, utilizes by ATA and the wire designs with distinct aspects are 40 or 80. One end of the connector is attached to the motherboard and the other is attached to the hard drive.
- The utilization of a single bus is done by PATA but with more than one wire.
- To two devices at a time, ATA can make a link through connection, in which one link connection is called a slave and the other link connection is called master.
- The main reason for SATA is the increased data transfer speed and that’s why it is preferred over PATA in use.
- The length of the cable linking connection from the hard drive to the computer motherboard is another benefit of SATA over PATA.
- The SATA connection links on a computer motherboard are four to six, permitting for more than one SATA hard drives to be curved up like a hook.
- SATA hard drives at some unspecified time need an exceptional device driver for the computer to identify and utilize the drive.
- The cable of SATA permits only one SATA hard drive to be made link connection at a time.
What is the Difference Between RAM and ROM?
Both, RAM (Random Access Memory), and ROM (Read-Only Memory) are present a computer.
RAM is a volatile memory that temporarily stores the files you are working on. ROM is a non-volatile memory that permanently stores instructions for your computer.
Volatile and non-volatile memory
RAM is volatile memory, which means the information temporarily stored in the module is erased when you restart or shut down your computer. Because the information is stored electrically on transistors, when there is no electric current, the data disappears.
Each time you request a file or information, it is retrieved either from the computer’s storage disk or the internet. The data is saved in RAM, so each time you switch from one program or page to another, the data is instantly available.
When the computer is shut down, the memory is cleared until the process begins again. Volatile memory can be changed, upgraded, or expanded easily by users.
ROM is non-volatile memory, which means the information is permanently saved on the chip. The memory does not depend on an electric current to save data, instead, data is written to individual cells using binary code.
Non-volatile memory is used for parts of the computer that do not change, such as the initial boot-up portion of the software, or the firmware instructions that make your printer run. Turning off the computer does not have any effect on ROM. The non-volatile memory cannot be changed by users.
SD Full Form, What is the Full form of SD?
SD Full Form
The Full form of SD is Secure Digital. Secure Digital (SD) Card is a non-volatile memory card format. SD card is developed by the SD Card Association (SDA) for use in portable devices and popular storage media like mobile devices and digital cameras.
In August 1999, a standard was introduced by joint efforts between SanDisk, Panasonic (Matsushita Electric), and Toshiba as an improvement over Multi Media Cards (MMC) and has become the industry standard.
The three companies constituted SD-3C, LLC, a company that licenses and emphasizes intellectual property rights associated with SD memory cards and SD host and ancillary products. To encourage and create SD Card standards, the companies also created the SD Association (SDA), a non-profit organization, in January 2000.
Now, SDA has about 1,000 member companies. Secure Digital includes five card families available in three different sizes. The five families are the original Standard-Capacity (SDSC), the High-Capacity (SDHC), the extended-Capacity (SDXC), the Ultra-Capacity (SDUC) and the SDIO, which combines input/output functions with data storage.
What is the full form of SMPS?
Full form of SMPS: Here, we are going to learn about the SMPS, full form of SMPS, overview, how does SMPS work, advantages, disadvantages, etc.
SMPS: Switched-Mode Power Supply / Switching Mode Power Supply
SMPS is an abbreviation of Switched-Mode Power Supply. It is also called as “Switching Mode Power Supply”. It is an electronic mode of power supply that uses a switching regulator to switch electrical power proficiently. To switch the voltage into the computer satisfactory range, it is a power supply unit (PSU) commonly used in computers.
This SMPS has the power management electronic mechanism that converts electrical power proficiently. Switched Mode Power Supply uses an enormous power alteration method to diminish in general power loss. When higher effectiveness, smaller size, or lighter weight is needed, switching regulators are used as replacements for linear regulators.
Between different electrical configurations, an SMPS changes output voltage and current by switching ideally lossless storage fundamentals, such as inductors and capacitors. Ideal switching fundamentals determined by transistors managed outside of their active mode, which have no resistance when “on” and hold no current when “off”, and this is the reason, converters with ideal mechanism would function with 100% effectiveness, in other words, all input power is provided to the load; no power is exhausted as dissipated heat. In actuality, these ideal mechanisms do not exist, this is the reason a switching power supply cannot be 100% proficient, but over a linear regulator, it is still an essential enhancement ineffectiveness.
How does SMPS work?
The switching regulators are used in the SMPS device that switches the load current on and off to manage and stabilize the output voltage. The production of suitable power for a device is the mean of the voltage between on and off. Different from the direct power supply, the pass transistor of SMPS switches between low dissipation, full-on and full-off mode, and spends very less time in the high-dissipation transitions, which reduces exhausted energy.
- The size of the switch mode power supply is small.
- The weight of the SMPS is very light.
- Normally 60 to 70 percent is SMPS power efficiency, which is better for use.
- Anti-interference is strong in SMPS.
- The output range of SMPS is wide.
- The complexity of the switch-mode power supply (SMPS) is very high.
- The output ripple in SMPS is very high and its management is substandard.
- The use of SMPS can only be a step-down regulator.
- The output voltage is only one in SMPS.
What does UPS mean? Full form of UPS.
Uninterruptible Power Supply
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) or Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS), is an electrical equipment that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage level.
UPS contains mainly three basic components, a battery, a charger, and an inverter. The primary role of UPS is to provide short-term power during unexpected power outages and also react quickly to a power surge or fluctuations. The main three general categories of UPS are off-line (standby), online (no-break), and line-interactive.