Difference Between IPV4 And IPV6: IPV4 Vs IPV6
Make no mistake, this is the difference between IPV4 and IPV6 – In this discussion, we will review the differences between IPV4 and IPV6. Both are very important in the network world, namely regarding network addressing protocols.
IP addresses are used for devices to be able to connect from one device to another.
IP or Internet Protocol itself has a unique address to identify network devices in a network addressing system.
Let’s take a deeper dive into IP and the differences between IPV4 and IPV6.
What is an IP Address?
Before knowing the difference between IPV4 and IPV6, let’s first know the meaning of IP itself.
IP or internet protocol address is a binary number consisting of 32 bits – 128 bits that are different and unique from one another which is made to identify the host computer on the internet network.
The function of an IP address in a computer network is as an address on a computer so that it can connect to other computers. Usually, the IP address consists of four blocks, for each block filled from zero to 255. In its use, IP is allocated in two types, namely private IP and public IP.
Private IP is used when you need access to a local network such as a LAN. Meanwhile, public IP is used to access network services in a larger scope, such as the internet.
Currently, IP is available in versions 4 and 6 or what is called IPV4 and IPV6.
Understanding IPV4 and IPV6 in the Network
It is very important to know the meaning of each IPV4 and IPV6 to find out where the differences between these two IP addresses are.
The following are the respective meanings of IPV4 and IPV6:
IPV4 is short for internet protocol version 4 which consists of 32 bits. IPV4 is used in network addressing by dividing the network and hosts with the help of subnet masks in determining subnets.
Theoretically, IPV4 can handle up to 4 billion host computers or more, which is to be more precise about 4,294,967,296 hosts from around the world.
In this case, IPV4 is responsible for most of the traffic on the internet which the protocol has been in use since the inception of the internet.
The number of hosts is obtained from 256 to the power of 4. Then the maximum value for IP address for version 4 is 255.255.255.255 where this value is calculated from zero.
That way, the host value that can be accommodated is 256 x 256 x 256 x 256, and the total is obtained as previously mentioned.
Because hosts from all over the world have exceeded this quota, IPV6 or IP version 6 was created.
IPV6 is an internet protocol that plays a role in replacing IPV4.
The main reason for upgrading to version 6 is the IP address problem.
Based on information from InterNIC as a company that handles Iap Addresses from around the world, they admit that they have run out of IP addresses in class a and b so that they are now heading to class c.
There is no other choice but to upgrade IP to a better version to solve the quota limitation issue.
IPV6 has the main feature of automatic address configuration. This feature can also support faster connectivity on each network device.
In addition, IPV6 also has a larger address space than the previous version, offers more plug-and-play, and many other interesting features.
It will be clearer in knowing the difference between IPV4 and IPV6, so please read in the next sub discussion.
Difference Between IPV4 and IPV6
To find out the difference between IPV4 and IPV6, in the following we will divide them into several categories of features contained in each of these IP addresses.
Routing is the process by which an item can reach its destination from one location to another. Routing performance in IPV4 will decrease as the size of the routing table grows. This is due to checking the header on each hop switch and router. Meanwhile, IPV6 has a routing system that is more efficient than version 4 and has the ability to manage a larger routing table.
The difference between IPV4 and IPV6 can also be seen from the features offered. IPV4 has several addresses using 32 bits. So with that, the number of different and unique addresses that have been supported is limited or only about 4 billion from the number of IP addresses alone.
The use of 32 bit on IPV4 certainly cannot keep up with the growth of the internet from all over the world. That’s why the update to IPV6 already uses 128 bits with support for 3..4 x 10 ^ 36 the number of unique IP addresses.
Apart from the routing system and features, IPV6 has also been updated in terms of mobility. in version 4 has limited mobility support in rooming capabilities when switching from one network to another. Meanwhile, version 6 can meet very high mobility requirements by roaming from one network to another network.
In terms of security, it turns out that what is offered on IPV4 is different from IPV6. Even though IPV4 networks use IPsec Headers as security, they are only optional complementary features. Meanwhile, in IPV6, the IPsec header is a security standard that must be implemented.
IPV4 and IPV6 Comparison Table
|Address length 32 bits.||Address length 128 bits.|
|Manual configuration or DHCP||Can use address autoconfiguration|
|Optional IPsec Support||IPsec Support Required|
|The checksum is included in the header||The checksum is not included in the header|
|Use broadcast ARP Request to translate IPv4 addresses to link-layer addresses||ARP Request replaced by Neighbor Solicitation on a multicast basis|
|To manage groups on a local subnet the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used.||IGMP has been replaced by Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)|
|Fragmentation is carried out by both the sender and the router, reducing router performance||Fragmentation is carried out only by the sender|
|Does not require packet size at the link layer and must be able to rearrange packets of 576 bytes.||The Link Layer packet must support a packet size of 1280 bytes and must be able to reconstruct a packet of 1500 bytes|
The advantages of IPV6 as Internet Protocol
As a form of IPV4, of course, IPV6 has various advantages over its predecessor.
The following are the advantages of IPV6:
- IPV6 is a solution to the limitations of IPV4 addresses which are only 32 bits while IPV6 already uses 128 bits. So that IPV6 is superior in terms of more addressing which allows addressing various devices.
- More integrated aspects of security and quality of service
- IPV6 is in auto-configuration design and its hierarchical structure enables mobile communication support without breaking end-to-end communications.
- IPV6 allows for tricycle communication without going through NAT, in this case, it can facilitate the process of collaboration or communication between human-to-human, machine-to-machine, human-to-machine, and vice versa.
IP address classes
IP version 4 addresses are generally expressed in dotted-decimal notation, which is divided into four 8-bit octets. In some reference books, the format is wxyz. Since each octet is 8-bit in size, the values range from 0 to 255 (however, there are some exceptional values).
IPv4 addresses are divided into several types, namely as follows:
- The unicast address is an IPv4 address assigned to a network interface connected to an IP Internetwork. Unicast addresses are used in point-to-point or one-to-one communications.
- The broadcast address is an IPv4 address designed to be processed by each IP node in the same network segment. Broadcast addresses are used in one-to-everyone communication.
- The multicast address is an IPv4 address designed to be processed by one or more nodes in the same or different network segments. Multicast addresses are used in one-to-many communications.
IP Address Class
In RFC 791, IP version 4 addresses are divided into several classes, seen from the first octet, as shown in the table. Actually, what makes the IP version 4 class different is the binary pattern contained in the first octet (mainly the initial bits / high-order bits ), but to make it easier to remember, it will be faster to remember using a decimal representation.
|IP Address Class||First octet
|Class A||1–127||0xxx xxxx||Unicast address for large scale networks|
|Class B||128–191||10xx xxxx||Unicast address for medium to large scale networks|
|Class C||192–223||110x xxxx||Unicast address for small scale networks|
|Class D||224–239||1110 xxxx||Multicast address (not unicast address )|
|Class E||240–255||1111 xxxx||Recommended; generally used as an experimental address (experiment); (not a unicast address)|
Class A addresses are assigned to large-scale networks. The highest bit sequence number in a class A IP address is always set to the value 0 (zero). The next seven bits — to complete the first octet — create a network identifier. The remaining 24 bits (or the last three octets) represent the host identifier.
This allows class A to have up to 126 networks, and 16,777,214 hosts per network. Addresses with an initial octet of 127 are not allowed, because they are used for the Interprocess Communication (IPC) mechanism on the machine in question.
Class B addresses are reserved for medium to large-scale networks. The first two bits in the first octet of a class B IP address are always set to the binary number 10. The next 14 bits (to complete the first two octets) create a network identifier. The remaining 16 bits (the last two octets) represent the host identifier. Class B can have 16,384 networks, and 65,534 hosts for each network.
Class C IP addresses are used for small-scale networks. The first three bits in the first octet of a class C address are always set to the binary value 110. The next 21 bits (to complete the first three octets) form a network identifier. The remaining 8 bits (as the last octet) will represent the host identifier. This allows the creation of a total of 2,097,152 networks, and 254 hosts per network.
Class D IP addresses are reserved for multicast IP addresses only but differ from the three classes above. The first four bits in IP class D are always set to the binary number 1110. The remaining 28 bits are used as addresses that can be used to identify the host. To know this address more clearly, see the IPv4 Multicast Address section.
Class E IP addresses are provided as “experimental” or experimental addresses and are reserved for future use. The first four bits are always set to the binary number 1111. The remaining 28 bits are used as addresses that can be used to identify the host.
|Address Class||First octet value||Section for Network Identifier||The section for Host Identifier||Maximum number of networks||Maximum number of hosts in one network|
|Class D||224-239||Multicast IP Address||Multicast IP Address||Multicast IP Address||Multicast IP Address|
|Class E||240-255||Reserved; experiment||Reserved; experiment||Reserved; experiment||Reserved; experiment|
Note: The use of IP address classes is now irrelevant since IP addresses are no longer using address classes. Authorized Internet developers have clearly seen that the addresses divided into classes like the one above are no longer sufficient for today’s needs, in a time of widespread use of the Internet.
The new IPv6 addresses now do not use classes such as IPv4 addresses. Addresses that are created regardless of class are also called classless addresses.
Thus the review about Do Not Be Wrong, This is the Difference between IPV4 and IPV6, hopefully, it can provide many benefits, thank you.
Mustafa Al Mahmud is the Founder and CEO of Gizmo Concept and also a professional Blogger, SEO Professional as well as Entrepreneur. He loves to travel and enjoy his free moment with family members and friends.